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Antarctic Meteo-Climatological Observatory
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History

In December 1985, during the first Italian Antarctic expedition, the Italian party placed the first Italian remote camp (few tents) over some hills overlooking the Terra Nova Bay, looking for the best place to build a new station (named after “Mario Zucchelli”). The first automatic weather station called Eneide was installed at the top of an hill by Andrea Pellegrini; the place was called Campo Meteo. In 1987 Andrea Pellegrini created the Antarctic Meteo-Climatological Observatory with the collaboration of Lorenzo De Silvestri, Roberto Sarao and Paolo Grigioni. Over the years the Observatory has been responsible for installation and management of the official PNRA (the italian National Antarctic Research Program) meteorological instrumentation. In 2002 thanks to the collaboration between Paolo Grigioni and Umberto Gentili, the first database of meteo-climatological data and the first version of the website (htpp://www.climantartide.it) were created. In 2012 Paolo Grigioni become the Principal Investigator of the Observatory.
 
Below a brief description of the Observatory main activities along its Antarctic experience:

CHRONOLOGY
XXXII Expedition (2016-2017): Giuseppe Camporeale, Lorenzo De Silvestri, Stefano Dolci, Paolo Grigioni, Marco Proposito e Claudio Scarchilli
At Cape King, the 10m trellis of the AWS Alessandra was replaced with a new one 3 meters on height.
At Sitry AWS Irene has been permanently dismissed and removed.
At Talos Dome AWS Paola has been replaced with a new station similar to that previously installed in Sitry.
Procedures have been developed to send to Italy the images of SkyCam.
XXXI Expedition (2015-2016): Giuseppe Camporeale, Virginia Ciardini, Lorenzo De Silvestri, Stefano Dolci, Paolo Grigioni e Claudio Scarchilli
Installed at Campo Meteo a SkyCam Moonglow for capturing images of the sky for the study of cloud cover.
The AWS Modesta at the Priestley Névé was lifted because partially covered with snow.
The AWS Virginia was installed at the southern part of Inexpressible Island.
XXX Expedition (2014-2015): Giuseppe Camporeale, Lorenzo De Silvestri e Riccardo Schioppo
Installed a new anemometric station, Arianna at the Larsen Glacier near the pre-existing aws Lucia.
The AWS Zoraida on Priestley Glacier had a breakdown and was repaired by replacing the hardware.
Installed at Oasi an optical precipitation sensor for measuring the precipitation at Mario Zucchelli station.
The AWS Lucia at Larsen Glacier was dismantled and substituted with an AWS equipped with newer instrumentations and hardware
XXIX Expedition (2013-2014): Giuseppe Camporeale, Lorenzo De Silvestri, Antonio Iaccarino, Marco Proposito e Riccardo Schioppo
AWS Paola, was moved 7 km far from the old site at Talos Dome, near the airstrip close to the camp.
The AWS Giulia at Mid Point, on the Plateau, was lifted due to snow accumulation.
At Priestley Névé, the 10m trellis of the AWS Modesta was replaced with a new one 3 meters on height.
Replaced the American AWS Manuela at Inexpressible Island with a new AWS of the Antarctic Meteorological Research Center of the University of Wisconsin-Madison (USA).
XXVIII Expedition (2012-2013): Giuseppe Camporeale, Lorenzo De Silvestri, Antonio Iaccarino, Claudio Scarchilli e Riccardo Schioppo
Temporarily installed at Campo Antenne, close to the Mario Zucchelli station, a Sodar for 3D wind field study during the summer campaign.
Installed five new AWSs, temporarily named K1, K2, K3, K4, K5, in the area of the new permanent airstrip.
XXVII Expedition (2011-2012): Giuseppe Camporeale, Lorenzo De Silvestri, Antonio Iaccarino, Claudio Scarchilli e Riccardo Schioppo
Assembled on the ice pack a new portable AWS (model Vaisala TacMet®) close to the Twin Otter airstrip.
Temporarily installed at the Larsen glacier a new instrument to measure the summer snow transport (Snow Particle Counter) in collaboration with Nagoya University.
Installed at Campo Meteo radiometers for measuring longwave and shortwave radiation.
XXVI Expedition (2010-2011): Giuseppe Camporeale, Antonio Iaccarino, Claudio Scarchilli e Riccardo Schioppo
The AWS Zoraida, at Priestly Glacier, was moved 50 meters away since it was located in a cracked area.
The AWS Modesta on Priestley Névé was lifted about a meter due to snow accumulation.
XXV Expedition (2009-2010): Giuseppe Camporeale, Claudio Scarchilli, Riccardo Schioppo e Gianluca Venanzi
The station Bravo, moved from the ice pack after its breaking off, was installed on the airstrip at the at Enigma Lake.
Replaced the radio sounding system Vaisala MARWIN® with the newer system Vaisala DIGICORA III®.
XXIV Expedition (2008): Giuseppe Camporeale, Lorenzo De Silvestri e Claudio Scarchilli
The AWS Rita, at Enigma Lake, was dismantled and substituted because the 10 m trellis was bent down by strong katabatic winds during the winter.
The old AWS Lucia, at Larsen Glacier, was replaced with a newer one.
XXIII Expedition (2007-2008): Lucia Agnoletto e Umberto Gentili
Realized the new AWS, Alpha, which replaces the older anemometric station. AWS Jennica has been permanently dismissed and removed.
The driftometer was moved from Mid Point to Larsen Glacier and placed close to the one already present at the site.
XXII Expedition (2006-2007): Lorenzo De Silvestri e Stefano Dolci
Installed a new AWS, Lucia at the Larsen glacier. At the same site, it was installed a new sensors for snow transport measurements.
Installed a new anemometric station, named Enigma, at the Enigma Lake airstrip.
XXI Expedition (2005-2006): Lucia Agnoletto, Lorenzo De Silvestri, Stefano Dolci, Antonio Iaccarino, Marco Proposito e Claudio Scarchilli
Installed two new instruments for the snow transport measurements, one at the Talos Dome and the other at Mid Point. Developed the software for AWS data acquisition via radio modem and Iridium.
XX Expedition (2004-2005): Giulia Clai, Stefano Dolci, Umberto Gentili e Marco Proposito
With the XX expedition began the activity of the Observatory at Concordia station built on a site called Dome C. A new radiosounding system and an AWS named Concordia were installed.
XIX Expedition (2003-2004): Lucia Agnoletto, Lorenzo De Silvestri, Umberto Gentili e Marco Proposito
The AWSs located on the Plateau, Giulia, Irene and Paola, were equipped with a satellite phone IRIDIUM, making communications with the remote sites possible.
XVIII Expedition (2002-2003): Umberto Gentili, Paolo Grigioni, Andrea Pellegrini e Marco Proposito
Installed a new AWS Paola at Talos Dome. The AWS Sofia was removed from the Nansen Ice Sheet and relocated on the David Glacier. The AWS was renamed Sofiab.
Installed at Midpoint, a sensor for the snow transport measurements.
A wooden chalet was built at Campo Meteo that became the Observatory headquarter during Antarctic expedition and it was nicknamed Villa Pellegrini.
Was created the first version of the website Climantartide with the climatological data collected in Antarctica freely available.
XVII Expedition (2001-2002): Lorenzo De Silvestri e Andrea Pellegrini
Installed the new AWS at Sitry site. The AWS was called Irene.
XVI Expedition (2000-2001): Lorenzo De Silvestri, Paolo Grigioni e Andrea Pellegrini
Realized a new AWS to be installed at the Sitry site. The AWS was assembled and tested at Mario Zucchelli Station.
XV Expedition (1999-2000): Paolo Grigioni e Andrea Pellegrini
Installed a new anemometric station Minni at Browning Pass.
XIV Expedition (1998-1999): Lorenzo De Silvestri e Paolo Grigioni
Installed a new AWS Penguin at Edmonson Point.
XIII Expedition (1997-1998): Lorenzo De Silvestri e Paolo Grigioni
Installed two new AWSs: Maria at Mount Browning and Giulia at Mid Point.
XII Expedition (1996-1997): Lorenzo De Silvestri e R. Siverio
The anemometric station Rita was removed at Enigma Lake and replaced with a newer one.
Installed a new AWS on a the roof of a van used during the International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Exploration (ITASE).
XI Expedition (1995-1996): Claudio Giudici e Paolo Grigioni
Optimization of the procedures of communication between the AWSs and the Mario Zucchelli Station.
X Expedition (1994-1995): Lorenzo De Silvestri
Substitution of the power operating system in most of the AWS with enhancement of the supply system.
IX Expedition (1993-1994): Paolo Grigioni e Roberto Sarao
Installed two new anemometric stations,Alfa and Bravo on the airstrip located on the ice pack.
Installed at Mario Zucchelli Station a ceilometer to measure the height of the cloud base.
Roberto Sarao was involved in a serious accident, during the maintenance of the AWS Lola at Tourmaline plateau. The 1st of July 1997, the PNRA, requested the Committee for Antarctic geographical names to appoint this place as "Sarao Point".
VIII Expedition (1992-1993): Lorenzo De Silvestri
Installed a new anemometric station called Airport at Enigma Lake.
VII Expedition (1991-1992): Roberto Sarao
Installed a new AWS, Jennica, at Mario Zucchelli Station.
Upgraded and expanded several AWS memories in order to change from three-hourly to hourly storage time of samples.
VI Expedition (1990-1991): Lorenzo De Silvestri e Paolo Grigioni
Installed a new AWS Silvia at Cape Phillips. Installed a new anemometric station, Elipad, at the Mario Zucchelli Heliport.
V Expedition (1989-1990): Claudio Giudici e Roberto Sarao
Installed two new AWS: Lola on Tourmaline plateau and Arelis at Cape Ross.
IV Expedition (1988-1989): Lorenzo De Silvestri
Installed a new AWS Rita at Mario Zucchelli Station.
III Expedition (1987-1988): Lorenzo De Silvestri, Claudio Giudici e Roberto Sarao
Installed a new AWS Modesta on the Priestley Névé.
II Expedition (1986-1987): Andrea Pellegrini e Roberto Sarao
Installed three new AWS: Sofia on Nansen Ice Sheet, Zoraida along the Priestly Glacier and Alessandra at Cape King. Each AWS was equipped with a satellite transmitter (ARGOS) to send the data collected in Italy.
It was also installed a receiver of satellite images (NOAA), an HF receiver for weather maps and a radiosounding system for the acquisition of atmospheric profiles at Mario Zucchelli Station.
I Expedition (1985-1986): Massimo Frezzotti e Andrea Pellegrini
The first automatic weather station, Eneide was installed at Campo Meteo.